Beo-lab histopathology laboratory
The laboratory for histopathology and cytological diagnosis has modern equipment. We process and analyze different tissue samples and paraffin blocks (molds) which have previously been processed in other institutions. We have the most advanced equipment for the automated processing of tissue samples. We perform all the methods of modern histopathological and cytological diagnosis: histochemistry, immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization (ISH), fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) and cytogenetic analyses. We use original reagents of the world’s most famous and certified manufacturers.
Due to the automated processing of tissues, the basic histological analysis of the sample (H&E preparation) of endoscopic and incisional biopsies is finished in 24 to 48 hours, and of operational materials and bone marrow biopsy, in 48 hours. In case of additional analyses (immunohistochemistry, ISH, FISH, cytogenetics), the processing and analysis take a little longer, up to 7 days. The cytological analysis is finished on the same day. A modern device for the ex tempore analysis provides findings within 15 minutes after the receipt of a material during a surgery.
We have our own fleet for the field service, and a team of drivers ready at any time of the day to collect samples and deliver results to the required address. These field service teams also transport samples to the central unit under prescribed conditions.
The lab has permanently employed personnel, Dr Vesna Čemerikić-Martinović, a pathologist, Dr Danica Jovanović, a pathologist, Dr Neda Drndarević, and four lab technicians.
We closely cooperate with fellow pathologists from the Clinical Center of Serbia, Institute of Pathology at the Faculty of Medicine University of Belgrade, Zemun Hospital, Serbian Institute for the Health Protection of the Mother and Child “Dr Vukan Čupić”, and from other institutions, this, in case of a need, it is possible to have consultative medical examinations. We also closely cooperate with the pathology department of the Oncology Institute in Ljubljana and with some institutions abroad.
Beo-lab histopathological laboratory includes the following analyses:
Cytological analyzers examine smears of different organs, sputum, materials obtained by puncturing cysts on various organs, pleural, pericardial and peritoneal cavity, liquid, discharge from the breast and other organs, urine and percutaneous needle biopsy (FNAB). The analysis involves determining cellular composition and detecting malignant cells. Cervical smears are processed with Papa Nicolau method. HPV genotyping is possible with the immunohistochemical and in situ hybridization methods together with determining low and high risk groups. These analyses are performed on tissue sections of cervical biopsies. In case of HPV positive analyses, p16 is determined as a parameter for a high risk of cervical cancer.
Standard histopathology includes processing and morphological analysis of tissue samples obtained by various invasive methods such as ex tempore diagnosis during a surgery. In addition, consultative morphological analyses can be performed on obtained paraffin blocks previously processes in other institutions. The standard hematoxylin and eosin staining is also used as well as additional histochemical staining according to the need. In strictly indicated cases, adhering to modern pathology standards, additional immunochemical analyses such as ISH, FISH and cytogenic analyses are conducted.
We particularly emphasize the following:
- Accurate determination of a tumor type.
- Determining histogenic origin of a tumor.
- Precise classification of hematological diseases (leukemia and lymphoma) according to the latest principles of the World Health Organization using IH and FISH.
- Determining a hormone profile of neuroendocrine tumors.
- Determining a receptor status (Estrogen and Progesterone receptor) in breast cancer and other tumors, when required.
- Determining HER-2 status (immunohistochemistry and FISH analysis) in breast and gastric cancer, by immunohistochemistry in all cases, and by FISH analysis, at request.
- The proliferation index, metastatic potential and resistance to treatment parameters are determined as necessary, with appropriate immunohistochemical studies.
- Assessment of the risk of cancer progression in certain premalignant conditions (dysplasia) using ancillary markers (Ki-67, p53, p16, PTEN, etc.).
- Determining risky hereditary genetic syndromes.
- Separating early or locally advanced from locally metastatic cancers (detection of micrometastasis) in regional lymph nodes..
- Determining the minimum residual disease (in bone marrow, etc.))
- Determining prognostic factors and therapeutic predictions in conventional chemotherapeutic agents using predictive biomarkers such as TS (thymidylate synthase), PDH (pyruvate dehydrogenase), VEGF, EGFR; in targeted therapeutic molecule inhibitors such as HER-2 status (IHH and FISH score system) for breast and gastric cancer, and cardia.
- Neuromuscular biopsies, which are processed by standard morphological methods, enzyme histochemical methods and immnohistochemically.
- In situ hybridization method which is used to detect the presence of EBV infection and conduct HPV (Human Papillomavirus) genotyping by determining low or high risk groups. The method is also used for determining the clonality of B-lymphocytes and plasma cells in case of suspected lymphoprolipherative disorder.
- Detecting certain viral or bacterial agents in the tissue (H. pylori, EBV, CMV, HPV strains, HBV, HCV, etc.).