Microbiological laboratory

The following analyses are conducted in the microbiological laboratory, using standard microbiological techniques, the most advanced equipment and top quality devices, according to the recommendations of WHO (World Health Organization) and CLSI (Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute):

Bacteriological analyses

– Isolation and identification of pathogenic aerobic and anaerobic bacteria from different samples (smears, secretions, sputum, urine, stool, blood) and examination of their sensitivity to antibiotics.

** The bacteria of the genus Salmonella, Shigella, Yersinia and Campylobacter are the most common causes of bacterial intestinal infections, which occur with the intake of contaminated food (mostly of animal origin) and water. These diseases, which usually occur in the summer, may be accompanied with severe diarrhea, vomiting, fluid loss and electrolyte concentration disorder. The microbiological analysis of the stool is used for determining the presence of these bacteria and for testing their sensitivity to antibiotics. The clinical picture may be quite mild, and considering that an antibiotic therapy may affect prolonged secretion of certain bacteria, antibiotics should be administered only by medical prescription. Upon cessation of symptoms, the bacteria may still continue to exude through the stool for the shorter or longer period of time (germ carriers). These patients must undergo three consecutive negative coprocultures before they join a group of workers or start to work with the food.

-Confirming the presence of mycoplasma, ureaplasma and chlamydia in urogenital specimens.

* Chlamydia, mycoplasma and ureaplasma are the most common causes of sexually transmitted diseases that cause chronic diseases of genital organs, often accompanied by sterility. The presence of these microorganisms in a cervical and urethral smear and in urine in men is determined with sensitive methods (ELISA, commercial biochemical tests), which determine their number-concentration in the sample, and in terms of micoplasma and ureaplasma, their sensitivity to antibiotics.

Mycological analyses

– Isolation of yeasts and molds from various samples (skin and mucous membrane smears, stool, sputum and urine) is performed routinely simultaneously with bacteriological testing. Isolates of fungi of the genus Candida are kept up to 5 days, so that, if the patient wants, they can be identified in terms of specimen and examined for antifungal sensitivity with a commercial test (Candifast).

– Isolation and identification of dermatophyte-fungi causing diseases of skin, nails and hair, and requiring incubation of 14 days.

Parasitological analyses

– Identification of the eggs of intestinal parasites (Nematoda, Cestoda, Trematoda) and cysts of intestinal protozoa (Entamoeba, Giardia , Balantidium …) in the stool.
– Detecting Enterobius vermicularis eggs in a perianal impression.
– Testing the presence of Demodex in skin scraping.
– Testing the presence of Trichomonas vaginalis in different samples (vaginal, urethral smear, urine).

Serological analyses

-Confirming the presence of blood antibodies in terms of various bacteria, mycoplasma, chlamydia, viruses and parasites. Theses analyses are used for determining concentrations of specific antibodies of specific classes of immunoglobulins (IgM, IgG, IgA), on the basis of which one can gain an insight into the phase of an infection (acute, chronic), degree of infection activity at the local level, i.e. immune status (immunity after an infection).

Bacteriological and serological analyses:

– Confirming the presence of antibodies to bacterial species: Helicobacter pylori , Borrelia burgdorferi, Listeria monocytogenes, Treponema pallidum. Also, determining the presence of antibodies to the species like Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia trachomatis.
Read more: Helicobacter pylori – a bacteria which lives in gastric mucosa, affects at least 50% of the population, and the percentage of infected people grows with age. Most of the infected have no clinical symptoms, and a small number has long-term abdominal discomfort accompanied by stomach pains, nausea, difficult digestion, often ulcers and other complications associated with this condition. This infection does not disappear spontaneously and generally lasts for a lifetime. Reproduction of these bacteria in the stomach creates specific antibodies which may be detected in the blood of an infected person. Some of these antibodies have a short lifespan and indicate to a fresh infection, whereas other point to a chronic disease and their values may increase over several years. On the basis of clinical, gastroscopic and serological findings (concentration of antibodies in the blood), the clinician prescribes an appropriate therapy which is complex, and which contains antibiotics which affect the cause of the disease. This therapy can effectively eradicate Helikobacter and, thus, remove the major factor contributing to the occurrence of gastric mucosal inflammation. One of the signs of successful treatment is also a striking decrease in the concentration of specific antibodies in the blood occurring approximately 6 weeks after the therapy.

Viral and serological analyses: 
-Confirming the presence of antibodies for many viruses: Adenovirus, Coxsackie B, Rubella, Varicella-zoster, Epstein- Barr, Hepatitis, HIV, Herpes type 1 and 2, Cytomegalovirus, Influenza A and B, etc.

Parasitic and serological analyses: 
– Confirming the presence of antibodies for Toxoplasma gondii, Echinococcus granulosus, Trihinella spiralis, Tenia solium, Toxocara canis, etc.

Virological analyses – PCR

– HPV genotyping from cervical smears and determination of
high-risk types: 16 and 18;

medium-risk types: 31,33,35,39,45,51,52,56,58,59,68;
low-risk types: 6,11,42,43,44.

– Detecting agents of sexually transmitted diseases from genital smears: Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, Ureaplasma urealyticum, Mycoplasma hominis, Gardnerella vaginalis, Trichomonas vaginalis, HSV 1+2.

– Detecting Influenza N1H1 virus from a throat smear.

Microbiological controls

– Control of working surfaces, air, sterile instruments and solutions
– Biological controls of the efficiency of sterilization of dry and wet sterilizers.

Microbiological controls

– Confirming the presence of group A beta-hemolytic streptococci in throat and nose smears.
– Confirming Rotavirusa, Adenovirusa, Helicobacter pylori , Clostridium difficile toxin A+B in the stool.

Clostridium difficile
This spore, anaerobic bacteria can be found in the stool of about 3% of healthy people. Since its spores are widely present in a hospital environment, after hospitalization, this percentage increases to 20%. The bacteria is non-invasive, but it produces toxins – cytotoxin A and cytotoxin B, which cause the peeling of intestinal mucosa and diarrhea. Patients with Clostridium difficile obtain the disease by using broad spectrum antibiotics (ampicillin, cephalosporin). Isolation and identification of Cl. difficile in the stool is a complicated and time-consuming process, and considering that toxins of these bacteria are the main factors of pathogenicity, the disease diagnosis is made by detecting toxins in the stool using monoclonal antibodies. The result is obtained on the same day.


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