SPERMOGRAM AND HOW TO READ SPERMOGRAM RESULTS
Spermogram is a laboratory analysis of semen consisting of macroscopic and microscopic examination. The macroscopic examination includes the volume of semen, appearance, liquefaction, viscosity and pH value. The microscopic examination of semen includes the concentration of sperm, their mobility, the number of present leukocytes, erythrocytes, epithelial cells, sperm agglutination, determining the viability of normal and pathological sperm. It also determines the presence of fructose in semen. Spermogram results are viewed and read from several aspects. Depending on the concentration of sperm (normally there should be 20 – 250 x10*9/L ), there may be a case of oligospermia – reduced concentration of sperm, whereas complete absence of sperm is defined as azoospermia. Agglutination is not detected in normal ejaculate. Presence of agglutination is a pathological phenomenon and points to the existence of antibodies. Fructose in normal results should be positive, whereas in pathological results it may not be present. Detailed analyses and interpretations refer to sperm morphology, the presence of pathological forms, determining sperm viability, etc. A detailed interpretation of results is provided by the doctor who referred the patient to do spermogram.